The Supra Twin-Turbo mass...
The Supra Twin-Turbo mass air sensor. Using the dimensions mentioned in the body copy, we calculated the area loss in the unit. This calculation with the arms guess-timated put the flow loss at 28 to 30 percent. Ouch.
We have received a good deal of mail asking about the HKS VPC (Vein Pressure Converter) and its popularity in Supra Twin-Turbos. In those letters, many of the authors know of the VPC, but want to know more. It eliminates restrictions in the intake tract and opens the door to tuning.
The benefits of eliminating the factory mass air sensor become crystalline when you closely examine a stock Supra unit. The sensor is about 4-5/8 inches in length but the story is on the inside. The unit has an inside diameter of 2-5/8 inches but is burdened by what we call the Cone of Restriction, a 1-1/2-inch diameter cone-shaped structure situated in the middle of the sensor. The cone is open-ended with the opening leading to the hot-wire sensor array.
The opening funnels the air to the wire and the size of the opening is calibrated to the surface area of the wire to provide the proper readings. It works somewhat similarly to the screens in other mass air sensors that control, or "filter," the air prior to metering. The cone, which extends the length of the meter, is positioned by four wing-shaped arms that add to the unit's restrictive properties. The VPC unit allows the mass air sensor to be replaced by a section of intake pipe that flows 100 percent of its potential.
Here we see the VPC head unit,...
Here we see the VPC head unit, piggyback harness, pressure sensor and sensor wiring looms and vacuum lines. The air temp sensor was not photographed.
The tasks performed by the mass air sensor are replaced by the VPC, which works via the speed density form of engine management that uses sensor information to determine the proper fuel needs of the engine. The VPC gleans its information via its own air temperature, air pressure sensors and takes into account engine speed before calling on the proper fuel maps for the engine. The maps, which are formulated using complex algorithms, are contained within the VPC's 16-bit central processing unit. A chip provided by HKS tailors the VPC to the car it is tuning (so a Supra and an Eclipse would have different chips). Furthermore, when tuning calls for more fuel, the chip can be replaced with one programmed to control bigger injectors. The most popular Supra option seems to be 720cc HKS squirters.
Tuning is another benefit of the VPC. As a general rule, factory speed density systems can be a bit rigid when it comes to aftermarket engine performance. In some cases, speed density cannot deliver the full potential of advanced bolt-on power mods. With the VPC, the enthusiast is empowered to optimize performance. The VPC control unit has four knobs; Response, Gain, Idle and Option Output. These knobs give the user control of all facets of the fuel curve. (See details of their capabilities in the accompanying chart.)